Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request/Response Smuggling')
Puma is a web server for Ruby/Rack applications built for parallelism. In versions prior to 5.6.8, and 6.0.x prior to 6.4.2, puma exhibited incorrect behavior when parsing chunked transfer encoding bodies in a way that allowed HTTP request smuggling. Fixed versions limit the size of chunk extensions. Without this limit, an attacker could cause unbounded resource (CPU, network bandwidth) consumption.
CWE-444 - HTTP Request Smuggling
Entities such as web servers, web caching proxies, and application firewalls could parse HTTP requests differently. When there are two or more such entities in the path of an HTTP request, an attacker can send a specially crafted HTTP request that is seen as two different sets of requests by the attacked devices, allowing the attacker to smuggle a request into one device without the other device being aware of it. Such a vulnerability can prove devastating, for it enables further attacks on the application, like web cache poisoning, session hijacking, cross-site scripting, security bypassing, and sensitive information exposure.