Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')
A vulnerability in the URL filtering mechanism of Cisco AsyncOS Software for Cisco Email Security Appliance (ESA) could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to bypass the URL reputation filters on an affected device. This vulnerability is due to improper processing of URLs. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by crafting a URL in a particular way. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to bypass the URL reputation filters that are configured for an affected device, which could allow malicious URLs to pass through the device.
CWE-74 - Injection
Listed as the number one web application security risk on the 'OWASP Top Ten', injection attacks are widespread and dangerous, especially in legacy applications. Injection attacks are a class of vulnerabilities in which an attacker injects untrusted data into a web application that gets processed by an interpreter, altering the program's execution. This can result in data loss/theft, loss of data integrity, denial of service, and even compromising the entire system.