Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request/Response Smuggling')
Puma is a simple, fast, multi-threaded, parallel HTTP 1.1 server for Ruby/Rack applications. When using Puma behind a proxy that does not properly validate that the incoming HTTP request matches the RFC7230 standard, Puma and the frontend proxy may disagree on where a request starts and ends. This would allow requests to be smuggled via the front-end proxy to Puma. The vulnerability has been fixed in 5.6.4 and 4.3.12. Users are advised to upgrade as soon as possible. Workaround: when deploying a proxy in front of Puma, turning on any and all functionality to make sure that the request matches the RFC7230 standard. The affected versions are prior to 4.3.12 and 5.0.x prior to 5.6.4.
CWE-444 - HTTP Request Smuggling
Entities such as web servers, web caching proxies, and application firewalls could parse HTTP requests differently. When there are two or more such entities in the path of an HTTP request, an attacker can send a specially crafted HTTP request that is seen as two different sets of requests by the attacked devices, allowing the attacker to smuggle a request into one device without the other device being aware of it. Such a vulnerability can prove devastating, for it enables further attacks on the application, like web cache poisoning, session hijacking, cross-site scripting, security bypassing, and sensitive information exposure.