Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
Vyper is a Pythonic Smart Contract Language for the EVM. In affected versions when performing a function call inside a literal struct, there is a memory corruption issue that occurs because of an incorrect pointer to the the top of the stack. This issue has been resolved in version 0.3.0.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.