Improper Privilege Management
certain VT-d IOMMUs may not work in shared page table mode For efficiency reasons, address translation control structures (page tables) may (and, on suitable hardware, by default will) be shared between CPUs, for second-level translation (EPT), and IOMMUs. These page tables are presently set up to always be 4 levels deep. However, an IOMMU may require the use of just 3 page table levels. In such a configuration the lop level table needs to be stripped before inserting the root table's address into the hardware pagetable base register. When sharing page tables, Xen erroneously skipped this stripping. Consequently, the guest is able to write to leaf page table entries.
CWE-269 - Improper Privilege Management
An effective privilege management infrastructure provides valid users with required access and privileges across heterogeneous technology environments. An application with a faulty privilege management infrastructure allows higher than authorized privileges or enables privilege escalation. This can lead to security incidents such as system infiltration, data breach, and complete system takeover.