Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')
A path traversal vulnerability was identified in GitHub Enterprise Server that could be exploited when building a GitHub Pages site. User-controlled configuration options used by GitHub Pages were not sufficiently restricted and made it possible to read files on the GitHub Enterprise Server instance. To exploit this vulnerability, an attacker would need permission to create and build a GitHub Pages site on the GitHub Enterprise Server instance. This vulnerability affected all versions of GitHub Enterprise Server prior to 3.1.8 and was fixed in 3.1.8, 3.0.16, and 2.22.22. This vulnerability was reported via the GitHub Bug Bounty program. This is the result of an incomplete fix for CVE-2021-22867.
CWE-22 - Path Traversal
Path traversal (or directory traversal), is a vulnerability that allows malicious users to traverse the server's root directory, gaining access to arbitrary files and folders such as application code & data, back-end credentials, and sensitive operating system files. In the worst-case scenario, an attacker could potentially execute arbitrary files on the server, resulting in a denial of service attack. Such an exploit may severely impact the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of an application.