In PHP versions 7.3.x below 7.3.16 and 7.4.x below 7.4.4, while using mb_strtolower() function with UTF-32LE encoding, certain invalid strings could cause PHP to overwrite stack-allocated buffer. This could lead to memory corruption, crashes and potentially code execution.
CWE-787 - Out-of-Bounds Write
Out-of-bounds write vulnerability is a memory access bug that allows software to write data past the end or before the beginning of the intended buffer. This may result in the corruption of data, a crash, or arbitrary code execution.