In the ffghtb function in NASA CFITSIO 3.42, specially crafted images parsed via the library can cause a stack-based buffer overflow overwriting arbitrary data. An attacker can deliver an FIT image to trigger this vulnerability and potentially gain code execution.
CWE-787 - Out-of-Bounds Write
Out-of-bounds write vulnerability is a memory access bug that allows software to write data past the end or before the beginning of the intended buffer. This may result in the corruption of data, a crash, or arbitrary code execution.