Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
An issue was discovered in the Binary File Descriptor (BFD) library (aka libbfd), as distributed in GNU Binutils 2.31. An invalid memory address dereference was discovered in read_reloc in reloc.c. The vulnerability causes a segmentation fault and application crash, which leads to denial of service, as demonstrated by objdump, because of missing _bfd_clear_contents bounds checking.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.