Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature
A vulnerability in the Cisco node-jose open source library before 0.11.0 could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to re-sign tokens using a key that is embedded within the token. The vulnerability is due to node-jose following the JSON Web Signature (JWS) standard for JSON Web Tokens (JWTs). This standard specifies that a JSON Web Key (JWK) representing a public key can be embedded within the header of a JWS. This public key is then trusted for verification. An attacker could exploit this by forging valid JWS objects by removing the original signature, adding a new public key to the header, and then signing the object using the (attacker-owned) private key associated with the public key embedded in that JWS header.
CWE-347 - Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature
A cryptographic protocol is meant to ensure that services are provided in a secure manner. An application with absent or improper verification of cryptographic signatures allows malicious users to feed false messages to valid users or to disclose sensitive data, subverting the goals of the protocol. This can lead to security failures such as false authentication, account hijacking, and privilege escalation.