Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
In Libav through 11.11 and 12.x through 12.1, the smacker_decode_tree function in libavcodec/smacker.c does not properly restrict tree recursion, which allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (bitstream.c:build_table() out-of-bounds read and application crash) via a crafted Smacker stream.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.