Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
The DHCP relay subsystem of Cisco IOS 12.2 through 15.6 and Cisco IOS XE Software contains a vulnerability that could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to execute arbitrary code and gain full control of an affected system. The attacker could also cause an affected system to reload, resulting in a denial of service (DoS) condition. The vulnerability is due to a buffer overflow condition in the DHCP relay subsystem of the affected software. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending a crafted DHCP Version 4 (DHCPv4) packet to an affected system. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to execute arbitrary code and gain full control of the affected system or cause the affected system to reload, resulting in a DoS condition. Cisco Bug IDs: CSCsm45390, CSCuw77959.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.