Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')
In haml versions prior to version 5.0.0, when using user input to perform tasks on the server, characters like < > " ' must be escaped properly. In this case, the ' character was missed. An attacker can manipulate the input to introduce additional attributes, potentially executing code.
CWE-79 - Cross Site Scripting
Cross-Site Scripting, commonly referred to as XSS, is the most dominant class of vulnerabilities. It allows an attacker to inject malicious code into a pregnable web application and victimize its users. The exploitation of such a weakness can cause severe issues such as account takeover, and sensitive data exfiltration. Because of the prevalence of XSS vulnerabilities and their high rate of exploitation, it has remained in the OWASP top 10 vulnerabilities for years.