Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
Integer signedness error in the simplestring_addn function in simplestring.c in xmlrpc-epi through 0.54.2, as used in PHP before 5.5.38, 5.6.x before 5.6.24, and 7.x before 7.0.9, allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (heap-based buffer overflow) or possibly have unspecified other impact via a long first argument to the PHP xmlrpc_encode_request function.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.