Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
The restore_tqb_pixels function in libbpg 0.9.5 through 0.9.7 mishandles the transquant_bypass_enable_flag value, which allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code or cause a denial of service (out-of-bounds write) via a crafted BPG image, related to a "type confusion" issue.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.