Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
gd_xbm.c in the GD Graphics Library (aka libgd) before 2.2.0, as used in certain custom PHP 5.5.x configurations, allows context-dependent attackers to obtain sensitive information from process memory or cause a denial of service (stack-based buffer under-read and application crash) via a long name.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.