Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
The nsScannerString::AppendUnicodeTo function in Mozilla Firefox before 45.0 and Firefox ESR 38.x before 38.7 does not verify that memory allocation succeeds, which allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code or cause a denial of service (out-of-bounds read) via crafted Unicode data in an HTML, XML, or SVG document.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.