Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
The xmlParseXMLDecl function in parser.c in libxml2 before 2.9.3 allows context-dependent attackers to obtain sensitive information via an (1) unterminated encoding value or (2) incomplete XML declaration in XML data, which triggers an out-of-bounds heap read.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.