Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
The _bdf_parse_glyphs function in FreeType before 2.4.11 allows context-dependent attackers to cause a denial of service (out-of-bounds write and crash) via vectors related to BDF fonts and an ENCODING field with a negative value.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.