Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
The t2p_read_tiff_init function in tiff2pdf (tools/tiff2pdf.c) in LibTIFF 4.0.2 and earlier does not properly initialize the T2P context struct pointer in certain error conditions, which allows context-dependent attackers to cause a denial of service (crash) and possibly execute arbitrary code via a crafted TIFF image that triggers a heap-based buffer overflow.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.