Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
Heap-based buffer overflow in the utf16_to_isolatin1 function in Mozilla Firefox 4.x through 12.0, Firefox ESR 10.x before 10.0.5, Thunderbird 5.0 through 12.0, Thunderbird ESR 10.x before 10.0.5, and SeaMonkey before 2.10 allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via vectors that trigger a character-set conversion failure.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.