Splunk 4.2.5 and earlier, when a Free license is selected, enables potentially undesirable functionality within an environment that intentionally does not support authentication, which allows remote attackers to (1) read arbitrary files via a management-console session that leverages the ability to create crafted data sources, or (2) execute management commands via an HTTP request.
CWE-287 - Improper Authentication
Improper (or broken) authentication attacks are widespread, and have accounted for many of the worst data breaches in recent years. Improper authentication attacks are a class of vulnerabilities where an attacker impersonates a legitimate user by exploiting weaknesses in either session management or credential management to gain access to the user’s account. This can result in disclosure of sensitive information, and can lead to system compromise, theft, identity theft, and fraud.