Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
IrfanView before 4.27 does not properly handle an unspecified integer variable during processing of PSD images, which allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (application crash) or possibly execute arbitrary code via a crafted image file that triggers a heap-based buffer overflow, related to a "sign-extension error."
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.