Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
Array index error in the (1) dtoa implementation in dtoa.c (aka pdtoa.c) and the (2) gdtoa (aka new dtoa) implementation in gdtoa/misc.c in libc, as used in multiple operating systems and products including in FreeBSD 6.4 and 7.2, NetBSD 5.0, OpenBSD 4.5, Mozilla Firefox 3.0.x before 3.0.15 and 3.5.x before 3.5.4, K-Meleon 1.5.3, SeaMonkey 1.1.8, and other products, allows context-dependent attackers to cause a denial of service (application crash) and possibly execute arbitrary code via a large precision value in the format argument to a printf function, which triggers incorrect memory allocation and a heap-based buffer overflow during conversion to a floating-point number.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.