Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
The BMP and GIF image decoding engine in ImageIO in Apple Mac OS X before 10.5.3 allows remote attackers to obtain sensitive information (memory contents) via a crafted (1) BMP or (2) GIF image, which causes an out-of-bounds read.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.