Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
bzlib.c in bzip2 before 1.0.5 allows user-assisted remote attackers to cause a denial of service (crash) via a crafted file that triggers a buffer over-read, as demonstrated by the PROTOS GENOME test suite for Archive Formats.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.