Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
flex.skl in Will Estes and John Millaway Fast Lexical Analyzer Generator (flex) before 2.5.33 does not allocate enough memory for grammars containing (1) REJECT statements or (2) trailing context rules, which causes flex to generate code that contains a buffer overflow that might allow context-dependent attackers to execute arbitrary code.
CWE-119 - Buffer Overflow
Buffer overflow attacks involve data transit and operations exceeding the restricted memory buffer, thereby corrupting or overwriting data in adjacent memory locations. Such overflow allows the attacker to run arbitrary code or manipulate the existing code to cause privilege escalation, data breach, denial of service, system crash and even complete system compromise. Given that languages such as C and C++ lack default safeguards against overwriting or accessing data in their memory, applications utilizing these languages are most susceptible to buffer overflows attacks.